Before we start programming the color sensor, students need to learn more about what color is and how the sensor works. Below one can find detailed information on the topic which is also available to students. As the theory is lengthy, it will be best if the teacher initiates a discussion on the topic and uses the tutorial as a reference point. In that way, the teacher will be able to control the complexity of the details discussed, based on the level of the group.
Again, based on the teacher's assessment, the group can get into even greater detail. For an instance, the teacher can tell them some interesting facts by asking questions.
For example, let us take black and white bodies. Tell them that a black body is an idealized physics body that absorbs all of the light, while a white body is the opposite - it reflects all of the light. Of course, such things do not exist but you could discuss what comes closest to these definitions in nature. Ask them and discuss their suggestions.
Finally, you can tell them that a black hole is probably the closest to the definition of a black body in nature. However, even a black hole is not a perfect black body. Scientists develop different materials that have physical properties close to the ones of a black body. Such materials will have great usage in the military industry because objects made of them will be invisible for the radars. As of today, there are some materials manufactured from carbon nanotubes that absorb between 98% and 99% of the light.
As for the white bodies, you can explain that metals reflect the greatest amount of light. Typically mirrors are made of aluminum and silver, as silver can reflect up to 97% of the light.